Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore was the Indian ruler who resisted the East India Company’s conquest of southern India. He was born on November 20, 1750, and had inherited the throne from his father Haidar Ali, who had driven out the previous dynasty.
He was a great administrator who not only resisted the British but also took great administrative measures.
Technological and administrative innovations of Tipu Sultan
His reign is remembered for many technological and administrative innovations. He introduced new coin denominations and new coin types and a lunisolar calendar.
Tipu Sultan expanded the use of rockets, deploying as many as 5,000 rocketeers at a time. These rockets that were a part of the Battle of Pollilur in 1780 and Siege of Seringapatam in 1799 were said to be more advanced than the British had ever used or seen.
During his reign, he introduced a land revenue system that gave a boost to the Mysore silk industry and helped in establishing Mysore as a major economic power. He is credited for establishing Lalbagh Botanical Garden in Bengaluru.
He had fought several wars against the Marathas and the British and came out victorious. He was killed at the battlefield on May 4, 1799, while defending his fort of Srirangapatna.
Facts about Tipu Sultan:
- Tipu Sultan authored a military manual called Fathul Mujahidin. This manual explains the operation of Mysore rockets. And another book Khwabnama authored by him where he mentions his dreams in which he used to search for signs and pictures about the results of his fight.
- Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Shahab was Tipu’s full name. He was named Tipu after the local saint Tipu Mastan Aulia.
- At the age of 15, Tipu Sultan supported his father in the first battle of Mysore against the British in 1766 with a military force of merely two to three thousand people.
- Tipu Sultan had an obsession for horticulture and gardening and he established the Lalbagh Botanical Garden in Bengaluru.
- He is known as Tiger of Mysore because once he went hunting with his friend and was attacked by a Tiger. He killed the tiger with a gunshot and came to be known as the Tiger.
- The sword he owned was about 7 kgs and 400 grams with a Tiger carved on it. Vijay Mallya bought his sword for 21 crores from the auction in 2003.
- Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam called Tipu Sultan the innovator or pioneer of the world’s first war rocket. The rocket he invented is still kept in a museum in London.
- Throughout his reign, he kept on renaming places in his territory. Mangalore was changed to Jalalabad, Mysore to Nazarabad, Bepur to Sultanpatanam, Cannanore to Kusanabad, Gooty to Faiz-Hissar, Dharwar to Quarshed-Sawad, Dindigul to Khaliqabad, Ratnagiri to Mustafabad, and Kozhikode to Islamabad.
- Tipu made regular endowments to Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangapatna and continued to patronize the Sringeri Mutt despite being a Muslim. The ring he owned also had Ram etched on it.
- Tipu was a victorious warrior. He was killed in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 after the British and the Nizam of Hyderabad joined hands.